“You have learned by actual experience how different freedom is from slavery…how much better is poverty with no master than wealth with slavery.”–Boudica’s Speech to Followers, as recorded by Cassius Dio
Although the highest political authority for the Celtic Society was often vested in males, women occasionally became ruling queens and military leaders. The practice of bearing arms was relatively common among women. Tacticus, the first-century Roman historian, wrote the Britons, “are used to women commanders in war.”
Boudica was the best known warrior queen in Britain. A Briton of royal family and high intelligence, she assembled some 120,000 men and women warriors for her revolt. She was one of the most formidable opponents the Romans faced in their history. Dio Cassius, more than a century later, described the Iceni queen as “very tall in stature, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of an eye most fierce, harsh in voice…and with a mass of bright red hair falling to her hips.”
To better understand the reasons for the ferocity of her vengeance, below is a backdrop of Roman atrocities that set the stage for Boudica’s revolt, beginning in Gaul and spilling into Britain.
Caesar’s Decimation of Gaul
In first-century BC, the heartland of the great Celtic culture was Gaul (modern day France). The Roman conquest and downfall of Gaul is detailed in accounts of Julius Caesar. By any standards, the campaign in Gaul was an appalling holocaust of the Celtic people. In 60 BC, Gaul probably had some six million inhabitants. Ten years later, 1 million had been killed and another 1 million sold into slavery, a scale of oppression comparable to Hitler in the Second World War.
The primary motivation for Caesar’s attacking Gaul was to enhance his own position in the Roman Republic and to amass slaves whom he could sell to clear his heavy debts. One tactic he often used was to ally with the Celtic kings under the guise of helping them defend their homelands from invading Germanians or other Celtic tribes. Needless to say, his ultimate goal was to steal their lands so he could embellish his reputation and enrich himself in advance of taking ultimate power in Rome.
Caesar took pleasure in chronicling the ferocity of his conquest, including:
- Hundreds of thousands of deaths among the Helvetii
- Massacre of all elders of the Veniti
- Virtual destruction of the Nervii
- Sale of 53,000 Atuatuci as slaves in a single auction
Many of these Gallic people escaped to southeast Britain, but the remainder were eventually acculturated and assimilated into the Roman Empire. It is likely Latin supplanted Gaulish as the dominant language in the core areas of Gaul within a century of the conquest.
However, the Britons would not go down as easily.
Roman Conquest of Britain
The initial Roman invasion of Britain in 43 AD under Emperor Claudius met little resistance, in part, due to alliances Rome had made with powerful Celtic rulers. The situation quickly changed in 48-54 AD when the Romans fought Caratacus, a leader who used guerrilla tactics in the western frontier.
For the Britons, the initial conquest was traumatic. Those who had initially resisted the first invasion were dead, enslaved, or silently seething in anguish. Many of those who had first welcomed Rome now faced the realities of brutal power and corrupt monetary system. The few British nobles who had initially benefited lost their wealth to avaricious traders and touts who swarmed into the country.
In essence, the Britons were not going to accept the Roman way of life.They bitterly resented the Roman bureaucrats who collected taxes in onerous ways. Lands were given to former Roman soldiers who had been brutalized by the harsh army discipline.They treated the natives with total contempt, particularly at Camulodunum (modern day Colchester). Everything in Britain was there for Roman pickings.
The courage of the rebellious Caratacus encouraged the downtrodden from the various tribes to unite with a new sense of purpose. The powerful druids, Celtic priests, now began to exert their powers to ferment and organize a resistance movement over the whole of Britain.
Advance into Wales
Emperor Claudius and his advisers probably had second thoughts about staying in Britain, as the ease of the initial phase of the conquest dramatically reversed by a wave of savage reaction in the western frontier, with heavy Roman loses. Claudius became woefully indecisive on whether to stay in Britain toward the end of his reign.
The Roman indecision about what to do with Britain changed when Nero, at the age of seventeen, became the emperor in 54 AD. In 57 AD, he and his advisers decided to conquer and hold the western frontier of Britain now known as Wales. This decision may have been due to the discovery of gold in central Wales, silver in northern Wales, and copper on the Island of Anglesey.
In 59 AD, Gaius Suetonius Paullinus, a hard uncompromising general, totally lacking the skills needed for a diplomat, was assigned as governor of Britain. His mission was to destroy the druidic power at Anglesey and to conquer Wales. The decision ignited a firestorm that brought ruin upon the Romans. The fact that the leader of the revolt was a woman caused the Romans the greatest shame, as they almost lost the isle of Britain.
To be Continued
The next series posts will detail major events leading up to and during the Boudica’s revolt.
Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Ph.D., Warrior Women: An Archaeologist’s Search for History Hidden Heroines; 2002; Warner Books, Inc., New York.
Cassius Dio: The Neronian Revolt of the Iceni under Suetonius Paullinus; Book LXII, Chapters 1-12 (AD 61)
John Davies, The Celts: Prehistory to Present Day; 2005; United States: Sterling Publishing Co., New York.
Julius Caesar, translated by F. P. Long, 2005. The Conquest of Gaul; United States: Barnes & Noble, Inc.
“When I reflect upon the number of disagreeable people who I know have gone to a better world, I am moved to lead a different life.” Mark Twain
I always enjoy all the noted history you give to us. Thanks, Tom
Thank you, Tom, for your continued support and great quotes by Mark Twain.
“You have learned by actual experience how different freedom is from slavery…how much better is poverty with no master than wealth with slavery.”
(Boudica’s Speech. Excpert).
Such a brave speech…
A very interesting and Thoughtful post. Truly worth reading…
Always nice to visit you, Linnea.Keep it up!
Best wishes, Aquileana 🙂
Thank you for much, Aquileana for your commment. I’ve enjoyed our interactions and always enjoy your thought-provoking blog on Greek philosophers. http://aquileana.wordpress.com/ Best regards, Linnea
Caesar certainly knew how to embellish the truth and was a master at creating situations to further his career in Roman politics. I wonder what he would have thought he had faced Boudica? Mind, Vercingetorix did not make it easy for him to conquer Gaul.
Another great and thought provoking post Linnea 😀
I appreciate your comments, Luciana. I agree Vercingetorix was also a formidable opponent of Caesar and there continued to be uprisings in Gaul. Sadly, the fate of Vercingetorix and Boudica was ultimately the same, though they did unite several Celtic tribes in their revolts to oppose Rome. I appreciate your continued interaction and love your blog on Ancient Mythology http://luccav.com/
Roman Conquest of Britain Section of your blog:
The Claudian invasion of 43 AD changing to BC with Caractacus.
“The situation quickly changed in 48-54 BC”
I think BC should be AD. I only say in case you might wish to revise. I enjoyed reading this but just thought the small nit pick might help because it goes back in time rather than forward.
Thank you for your feedback that the date should be changed to 48-54 AD. I’ve now corrected the date on the post so it accurately reflects the correct time.
Your writing of the historical events here is thorough and clearly explained. I found the parts about women to be especially interesting as I do read a lot about female issues. I look forward to reading more of your posts!
I appreciate your feedback on this post. One of reasons I am interested in Celtic history is that women from this ancient warrior culture had equal status. Their influence as military leaders and druidesses were highly regarded, as evidenced from ancient accounts and mythology. It is a sad commentary to see how the status of women has diminished with the rise of patriarchal empires and religion. The modern world could learn from ancient mythology about the importance of balancing nature and the lessons the Great Goddesses teach about compassion for all living things. I commend you for bringing forth some of the women’s issues that have arisen from this imbalance: http://whenwomeninspire.com/
Thank you again for your continued support.