Party Like a Celt: Festivals in Celtic Spirituality

Party Like a Celt: Festivals in Celtic Spirituality


Contributed Post

This post, Party Like a Celt: Festivals in Celtic Spirituality, was contributed by Jane Johnson, a freelance writer and editor. She has written for both digital and print across a wide variety of fields. Her main interest is exploring how people can improve their health and well being in their everyday life. And when she isn’t writing, Jane can often be found with her nose in a good book, at the gym or just spending quality time with her family.

Also check out Jane’s previous post, Exploring Magical Powers of the Celts, which was posted on this site.

Introduction

Like many other early civilizations, the Celts had their own myths and legends to describe how the world was created and run. They told stories of mythical creatures and wrote folk stories about their culture, which ultimately translated into many different popular fiction and movies. However, one of the most important things that the Celts  did was celebrate their heritage. There are many celebrations throughout the Celtic calendar that embrace myths, spirituality, and what it truly means to be Celtic.

The Imbolc Festival

The first festival celebrated in the Celtic year is known as Imbolc. Held in February, the event marks the ending of winter and the resuming of the normal life that the winter had once put on hold. The name “Imbolc” comes from the Gaelic word, “Imbolg”, which translates to “in the belly”. This refers to the pregnancy of ewes and the Goddess that is celebrated during the festival. Brigid is a goddess associated with poetry and fertility. To entice her to enter their homes, Celts offered gifts such as food or tokens outside the door. If she came to visit, Brigid would bless the family with good spiritual health and physical wellbeing through her healing and fertility powers.

The Bealtaine Festival

Also known by some people as Gaelic May Day and Beltane, Bealtaine is held on the first day of May. The festival is held in honor of the God, Bel, and marks the beginning of summer and warmth. The most important aspect of this festival is the lighting of the Bealtaine fires that is meant to be a symbol of purification. Bealtaine is also a day in which otherworldly denizens can more easily cross into our world.

Beltane Fire Festival Red Men Wikipedia Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

Lughnasa Festival

Lughnasa is the next festival in the calendar year and is held on August 1st. The main reason for this event is to appease the Sun God, Lugh. It all started as a day to honor his deceased mother, Taitlin, who had cleared Ireland’s fields to promote agriculture. During Lughnasa, the Celts worshiped Lugh and ensured a rich and prosperous crop for the upcoming season. The festival utilizes the first feast of crops gathered that year and also has matchmaking and athletic games for everyone to enjoy.

1905 illustration of Lugh’s bloodthirsty magical spear by H. R. Millar

Samhain Festival

The last Festival, Samhain, marks the beginning of winter. The festival is a time when the animals need to be brought back in from the pastures or slaughtered to provide for the rest of winter. It shares a few similarities with Bealtaine, as it involves special flames with purifying and protective powers. Samhain, much like Halloween in other cultures, is also a day when spirits and fairies can cross into our world.

Every culture has festivals that celebrate its traditions, myths, and spirits. Now that you know about the Celtic’s special events, why not expand your spiritual health and celebrate one this year?

Best wishes,
Linnea

Linnea Tanner, Author, Apollo’s Raven

 

Exploring Magical Powers of the Celts

Exploring Magical Powers of the Celts

Summoning Celtic Magical Powers

Female Warrior Summoning Celtic Magical Powers

Contributed Post

The post, Exploring Magical Powers of the Celts, was contributed by Jane Johnson, a freelance writer and editor. She has written for both digital and print across a wide variety of fields. Her main interest is exploring how people can improve their health and well being in their everyday life. And when she isn’t writing, Jane can often be found with her nose in a good book, at the gym or just spending quality time with her family.

 

Overview of the Celts

The earliest pre-Christian Celts were mysterious and captivating pre-Christian individuals with a history filled with legends and romance – a history of wizards, fairies, wizards, heroes and above all, magic. Julius Caesar was once quoted as saying that the Celts were brave but impetuous and headstrong. The various clans migrated from Central Europe and went on to populate much of Western Europe, Ireland and Britain until they were ultimately displaced by first the Romans and later Christianity.

Statue of Dying Celt

The various Celtic clans and tribes were unified by their common priesthood known as the Druids who were said to possess magical powers. These Druid priests preserved religion, scholarship, science and law, and had supreme influence over everyone due to their sacred authority. The Druids were known to yield psychic abilities firmly yet responsibly. One of the most famous of Celtic legends involving Druids is that of King Arthur and the wizard Merlin. Merlin was a Druid wizard, bard, tutor and keeper of arcane secrets. He was also rumored to be the son of an incubus (demon) and a mortal woman who was first a princess and later became a nun.

Druidic Ritual at Stonehenge

Druid Magic

The ancient Druids were also clergy as well as Shamans with their costumes including long white robes, feathered capes and elaborate headdresses. They also would often be seen wielding a rowan wood scepter as a sign of their power and that was often used as a magic wand when performing spells. The magic of Druids is all dependent on a strong and healthy awareness of nature itself as well as the gods and spirits who dwell in nature and is deeply rooted in the four elements earth, air, water and fire. Most Druid spells correspond to one or more of the elements with the 4 compass points each displaying a significant corresponding color:  North-black, South-white, East-red, West-grey.  Druid magic was known to combine the four natural elements with magic stones, color, direction, the lunar calendar and incense.

Horn God Surrounded by Animals; Inner Panel Gundestrup Cauldron

Sacred Symbols

Birds such as the swan, goose, owl, raven and eagle were all considered sacred in Celtic culture.  Other sacred animals included the cat, dog, wolf, bull, stag, boar, horse and butterfly with these animals often being depicted in very complex knotted patterns.

 

Knotted Celtic Raven Symbol

 

The number 3 was also considered sacred to the Druids and was believed to have numerous magical powers. This belief is exemplified in the Celtic triquerta, trefoil, nonegram and the Triangle of Manifestation. Hallowed trees included the hazel, oak and yew, with the worship of the oak tree being very commonplace in both Celtic and non-Celtic Europe.

 

Cork Oak Tree in Southern Britain

 

The Little People

Dwarfs, Brownies, Elves and Fairies made up a very intriguing aspect of Celtic culture and folklore. These tiny life-forms were seen as spiritual beings to whom the imprudence of mankind has assigned an imaginary existence. Fairies were referred to as the ‘good neighbours’ and were beautiful miniature versions of a divine human form. These cheeky little beings resided below ground or in little green dwellings and wore the most brilliant clothes. Leprechauns have become the self-appointed guardians of ancient treasure burying it in pots or crocks. Their association with rainbows and finding the pot of gold at the end of it has forever been associated with prosperity.

Classic representation fairy with butterfly wings by painter Ricardo Falero

Healing powers

The esteemed Druids were the learned elite and the authority on just about everything including medicine and healing spells. Healing magic would often involve invoking a deity of health and healing such as Airmid (Irish), Diancecht (Irish), Meg the Healer (Scottish) or Ariadne (Welsh) to help heal the ill. Astrology and astronomy were also used extensively while making a medical diagnosis. The Celts worshipped the moon and the sun and had a rudimentary veneration of the closest planets in the solar system. Various plants and herbs were employed for medicinal purposes and often had associations with certain Celtic deities.

Wildflowers on Dover Cliffs, Kent

The beauty and history of Celtic culture and magic have been preserved in various customs, legends, music, art, antiquities and literature for everyone to explore and enjoy. Through the continued study and appreciation of the magic and myth of the legendary Celtic culture, we are able to fully enjoy and treasure the influence of the most captivating of all people, the Celts.

Upcoming Posts

Upcoming posts based on my research to support the Apollo’s Raven series and another novel under development about a shipwrecked Roman tribune serving under Germanicus are as follows:

  • Celtic Goddesses
  • Mark Antony
  • Annihilation of Roman Legions in Germania and Aftermath

Celtic Gods and Goddesses

Below is an article that was originally posted on APOLLO’S RAVEN Website: http://www.linneatanner.com/blog/celtic-gods-goddesses/

The ultimate adventure, when all the barriers and ogres have been overcome, is commonly represented as a mystical marriage of the triumphant hero-soul with the Queen Goddess of the World—Joseph Campbell

Introduction

Previous posts on APOLLO’S RAVEN have provided an overview of Ancient Celtic religion and the pantheon of gods and goddesses. Although there are approximately 400 names of Celtic gods and goddesses which have been found throughout the vast area once inhabited by the Celts in Europe, from Ireland to Turkey, 305 of these names were inscribed only once. These were probably names of local deities. Only twenty names occurred with greater frequency and many of the Celtic gods and goddesses can be associated with Roman’s. The Celtic polyvalent deity did not have exclusive functions, but they were adept in all things. They also appeared in many polymorphic guises that included zoomorphic forms which combined human and animal attributes.

Below in an overview of Celtic gods and goddesses who were more widely accepted by the ancient Celts across all regions.


Celtic Gods and Goddesses

Belenus

Equated with Apollo, Belenus was the most widely venerated of the Celtic gods. The previous two posts in APOLLO’S RAVEN detail the mythology and festivals associated with Belenus.

Lycian_Apollo_Louvre

Belenus Equated with Apollo, God of the Sun and Healing


Cernunnos

Another popular god is the antler-god referred to as Cernunnos. He is the patron of the chase and the lord of the forest. Holed antlers discovered in Herfordshire UK appear to have been used as a human headdress, a practice widely presented in ancient cultures. Cernunnos was one of many zoomorphic (animal-like) gods. He is depicted on one of the plates of the Gundestrup Cauldron.

Panel on Gundstrup Cauldron

Antler-God, Cernunnos; Panel on Gundestrup Cauldron


Epona

A zoomorphic goddess who is represented by a mare is Epona. Monuments to Epona are found all over from Wales through France and into the Rhinelands. Her popularity with the Celts demonstrates their high regard for the horse. Epona was also popular with the Roman cavalrymen. Associated with fertility, Epona is the epitome of the mother goddess. In studies of Welsh mythology, she may have been equated with Rhiannon—the divine queen. In Irish studies, Epona might be associated with Maeve, the queen of the Connacht and Macha of Ulstur.

Epona Flanked by Horses

Epona Flanked by Horses


Lug

Among the names of the Celtic gods that appear more frequently on inscriptions is Lug—the Irish Lugh,  the Welsh Llew, and the Gaulish Lugus. It is generally accepted that when Caesar spoke of the Gaulish ‘Mercury’, he was referring to Lugus—the inventor of the arts and crafts. Yet, there are elements of Lug’s character  that are also similar with Jupiter, Mars, and Hercules. He is associated with the spear as a Magical Weapon brought from the Otherworld.

Lug's Bloodthirsty Magical Spear

Lug’s Bloodthirsty Magical Spear

At Lugdunum (modern day Lyons, France), the Gaulish Celts celebrated the ancient feast of Lugus. Following the Roman conquest, during the reign of Caesar Augustus, the feast was dedicated to the emperor. The same feast occurs in insular Celtic tradition on August 1st. In Ireland, the ritual is known as Lughnasadh, an agrarian feast in honor of harvesting crops.

The Irish Lugh was considered the greatest of all Celtic gods. The Dagda yielded command to him in the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. He is commonly known as Lugh of the Long arm or Hand. Of note, the Hindu perception of the sun rising, with its beams of light and its setting, was also likened to a great hand: “The god with the great hand stretches up his arms so that all obey.”  The Hindu solar deity, Savitar, also stretches out his hands to command day and night, suggesting a common Indo-European link.

Dagda Gundestrup cauldron

Dagda on Panel of Gundestrup Cauldron


Teutates, Taranis, and Esus

The 1st Century Roman poet, Lucan , writes the Celts had predominantly three gods: Teutates, Taranis, and Esus. Teutates was associated with the Roman god of trade, Mercury. The Celtic god of thunder, Taranis, is often equated with Jupiter; the Welsh word Taran means  ‘thunderer’. Esus was equivalent to the Roman god of war, Mars. His popularity among the Celts is evidenced by the number of Celtic names of gods joined to Mars on inscriptions.

God of Thunder, Taranis with Wheel and Thunderbolt, Equivalent to Jupiter

God of Thunder, Taranis with Wheel and Thunderbolt, Equivalent to Jupiter

The method of killing human victims in sacrifices depended on which god the offering was made to. Victims sacrificed to Teutates were drowned, to Taranis were burned, and to Esus were hanged. On the Gundestrup Cauldron, there is a figure held upside-down over what appears to be a pail of water, perhaps a sacrifice to Teutates. It should be noted that the names of these three gods were not widely found on inscriptions.

Teutates Celtic God of War on Gundstrup Cauldron

Victim Sacrificed by Drowning as Offering to Teutates; One Panel of Gundestrup Cauldron


Triplicate Goddesses

The concept of triplicate forms has roots in Indo-European mythology and philosophy. In Hindu belief, the Trimurti consisted of Brahma, the Creator; Vishnu, the Maintainer or Preserver; and Shiva the Destroyer or Transformer. Pythagoras saw three as the perfect number of the philosophers: the beginning, middle and end. The ancient Greeks believed the world was ruled by three gods: Zeus (heavens), Poseidon (sea), and Pluto/Hades (underworld).  The Fates, the Furies and the Graces are example of triplicate goddesses who were found in Greek mythology.

Three Graces Greek Mythology

Three Graces Greek Mythology

As in the Greek religion, the Celts viewed humans as body, soul and spirit; the world they inhabited as earth, sea, and air; and the division in nature as animal, vegetable, and mineral. Celtic goddesses were also often portrayed in triplicate forms as described below.

Mother Goddesses

Mother symbols were worshipped in triplicate from. In Gaul the title matres or matronae was used. Mother Earth was the symbol of fertility and figures of children, baskets of fruitm and horns of plenty were found all over the Celtic world. From Vertault in Burgundy was a triple mother goddess sculpture with a baby held by one hand while the other holds a towel. A triad of mother goddesses are carved on a plaque that is displayed at the Romans Baths (Bath, UK).

Triplicate Mother Goddesses Displayed at Bath UK Roman Baths

Triplicate Mother Goddesses Displayed at Bath UK Roman Baths


War Goddesses

The most famous war goddess, Morrigan is  interchangeable with Macha, Babd and Neiman. She embodies all that is perverse and horrible among the supernatural powers. In Irish literature, the story of Cu Chulainn features three goddesses—Morrigan, Macha and Babd— battle furies with an uncanny resemblance to Mcbeth’s three witches.

Babd is one of the triple-aspect goddess of war who would fly over warriors in battle and give out terrible screams, both to frighten and to incite them to even braver and mightier deeds. In this role, she is known as Badhbh Catha, the ‘battle raven’. It is claimed that she appeared above the head of the warriors during the Battle of Clontarf in 1014 A.D., when Brian Boramha defeated the Vikings. Babd is associated with sexual desire and fulfillment, as are all of the deities of war and battles. She is often guised as a beautiful young woman, but  can also take the form of a raven or a hideous hag. When Babd appears in the Ulster cycle and incites Cu Chulainn to his last battle, she takes the form of the raven and waits to pick his corpse clean.

Mythological Raven

Celtic Goddesses of War Can Take Shape of Raven


Macha
is the second aspect of the triple goddess of war who is featured in the Ulster cycle. One legend states that she was forced to race the King of Ulster’s horses while she was pregnant. She wins the race, but gives birth to twins as soon as she crosses the finish line. In her shame and anger, she curses the men of Ulster that, whenever they needed their strength most, such as on the eve of battle, they would be as weak as a woman in childbirth for nine days and nights. Like her sisters, she is associated with war and sexual gratification. She is closely connected with battle trophies of the goriest nature, especially severed heads, which were known as Macha’ s Acorn Crop.

Macha Curses Men of Ulstur

Macha Curses Men of Ulstur


Morrigan
is the third of the triple goddesses of war who appears in both the Mythological Cycle and the Ulster cycles, particularly in  the Cattle Raid of Cooley. She is seen as a weeping woman washing blood-stained shrouds at a ford in a river. This is an omen, particularly to a warrior on the way to battle. In one legend the Dagna encounters her washing blood-stained clothing in a stream. At the end of the legend, she gives a dire prophecy to the fate of humankind and the world. She is associated with war, grief, mutilation, shape shifting, and sexual gratification for its own sake.


Conclusions Ancient Celtic Religion

Ancient Celtic religion conjures both utopian and horrific images. The Celts demonstrated their spiritual kinship to nature and love for the Mother Goddess through their artwork and reverence for sacred groves. Their beliefs and philosophies are similar to the Greeks and Hindu Brahmins. Ancient Druids studied the nature of moral philosophy and believed the human soul is indestructible. Their belief in the immortal soul can be associated with the Greek Philosopher, Pythagoras, who was famous for his philosophy that the soul was immortal and went through a series of reincarnations that included animals and plants.

Celtic Cauldon Gundstrup

Gundestrup Cauldron

The Celtic belief in the soul ties in with their darker side of keeping enemies’ heads as trophies after battle. This practice was based on their belief that the head was the temple of the soul. Possessing an enemy’s skull was the same as capturing his soul and retaining its power. The soul is the continuation of the existence of a person and includes all of the functions of personality.

Stonework at La Roquepertuse Cult of Head

La Roquepertuse Gateway of Skulls

Finally, the Celts viewed the gods as their ancestors and creators who were more like supernatural


Upcoming Next Series

The next series of posts will discuss the rise of rival Celtic tribal dynasties in Britain between the time of Julius Caesar’s invasions in 55 – 54 B.C. and the final Roman conquest in 43 A.D. under Emperor Claudius.

Overview White Cliffs Britain

White Cliffs Near Dover Britain


References

  1. John Davies, The Celts: Prehistory to Present Day; 2005; Sterling Publishing Co., New York.
  2. Julius Caesar, translated by F. P. Long, 2005. The Conquest of Gaul; United States: Barnes & Noble, Inc.
  3. Peter Berresford Ellis, The Druids, 1995William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI.
  4. Steve Blamires,Magic of the Celtic Otherworld: Irish History, Lore & Rituals, 2009, Llewellyn Publications, Woodbury, MN.
  5. Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 2008Bollingen Series IVII, Third Edition; New World Library, Novato, CA